SHOE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

SHOE KNOWLEDGE FROM A TO Z

A - C

A
The symbol A indicates that the additional requirement for Antistatic has been fulfilled.

Abrasion resistance
High performance abrasion resistance is provided to prevent material or volume loss. This particularly applies to upper materials, lining and sole. High abrasion resistance means that the shoe has been built to resist wear caused by abrasion.

Abrasion-resistant toe protection
Toe areas tend to show wear after a while, especially when work is done in a kneeling position. Toe-protection can reduce, even prevent, this wear. The toe protection material is solidly integrated with the shoe. This provides the shoe’s outer material at the front of the shoe with durable protection against abrasion and increases the lifespan of your safety shoe. Extra protection against abrasion in the front part of the shoe protects the leather upper against premature wear.

Absolute Aluminia
Natural and synthetic fibres are combined with aluminium. This unique technology provides up to 100 % better thermal insulation and up to 50 % better heat storage than conventional materials. ABSOLUTE ALUMINIA® breathes, is hypoallergenic and is free of harmful substances.

Advantages of leather
Advantages: durability, high wearing comfort, low abrasion, protection against wind and rain, tear-resistant, sturdy, breathable, renewable resource

AGO process
It was around 1910 that Dr. F. Rampichini successfully developed a method of making shoes that was far less complex than the methods used until then. Up to then, shoe soles and uppers had always been sewn together. Dr. Rampichini succeeded in using an adhesive to durably cement leather to leather. He called the method “Another great opportunity”, AGO. Today most street shoes are produced in this way.

Ankle padding
Ankle padding provides good stability and firm support in the shoe

Antibacterial
Antibacterial means that bacteria can neither form nor multiply. This is most important for the various insoles and inlay soles to prevent odours and infection.

Antistatic
Antistatic is the property that prevents or significantly limits electrical charging.

Antistatic soft-fleece insole
An insole provides the connection between the upper and the sole. The antistatic soft-fleece insoles used by ELTEN are made from synthetic fleece that provides specific advantages for use as an insole material. The insoles provide a comfortable foot climate and a high degree of wearing comfort. They are antistatic even when 100% dry, even without the use of additional aids. They are approx. 50% lighter than comparable soles made from natural materials, more flexible and more resistant to impact. They breathe well and provide excellent abrasion resistance. Excellent moisture absorption provides a comfortable foot climate. Additional properties are: quick drying (virtually overnight), no discolouring and hardening when wet, pH neutral (pH value from approx. 7 – 8), do not provide a breeding ground for bacteria.

Basic Grey full-length inlay sole
The Basic Grey inlay sole is made from fleece which provides good moisture absorption and release. The material is particularly sturdy and abrasion-resistant. The inlay sole is also antistatic, antibacterial and replaceable.

Basic Red full-length inlay sole
The Basic Red inlay sole is made from fleece which provides good moisture absorption and release. The material is particularly sturdy and abrasion resistant. The inlay sole is also antistatic, antibacterial and replaceable.

b-dynamic
With its centre foot support, the b-dynamic® inlay sole provides individual adjustment to the foot in motion. This results in an optimal form fit between the foot and the shoe, as well as in improved foot rolling characteristics. b-dynamic® also provides high impact absorption at the ball and heel to relieve tendons and ligaments.

b-dynamic Basic full-length inlay sole
The b-dynamic Basic full-length inlay sole is replaceable, antistatic and sturdy. The centre foot support provides individualised adjustment to the foot in motion. This results in an optimal form fit between the foot and the shoe, as well as in improved foot rolling characteristics. The high impact absorption at the ball and heel relieves strain on tendons and ligaments. As a result, the b-dynamic Basic provides daily training of the musculoskeletal system.

b-dynamic full-length inlay sole
With its centre foot support, the b-dynamic® inlay sole provides individual adjustment to the foot in motion. This results in an optimal form fit between the foot and the shoe, as well as in improved foot rolling characteristics.  b-dynamic® also provides high impact absorption at the ball and heel to relieve tendons and ligaments.

BGR 191
BGR 191 are rules and regulations specified by the Professional Association for Occupational Health and Safety. It addresses the use of foot and knee protection. ELTEN provides various already tested models that can be modified orthopaedically without compromising the type examination certification.

BIOMEX PROTECTION
Biomex Protection© supports the ankle in its natural range of motion which protects it against twisting. Compared with other systems designed to protect the ankle, Biomex Protection© keeps the shoe comfortably light and does not make the ankle stiff.
Professionally protected all around with the Biomex Protection© asymmetric upper collar. Thanks to the offset pivot points, it follows the natural motion of the knee and lower leg along the body’s axis.

Breathable
A material is breathable if it provides effective air circulation and air exchange from the inside to the outside.

Buckle
The buckle makes it possible to adjust the tongue individually and quickly.

Business ESD full-length inlay sole
ESD-DESIGN: The ELTEN ESD inlay sole is antistatic and fulfils the EN ISO 20345 standard for ESD: protection against electrostatic discharge (electrostatic discharge = ESD, contact resistance 105-107 ohm), replaceable, full-length, sturdy, completely cowhide-nappa lined contact surface, natural material.

Cemented sole
The outsole can also be cemented. In this case, the outsole is prefabricated and fastened using the AGO method.

Certification in accordance with BGR 191
BGR 191 are rules and regulations specified by the Professional Association for Occupational Health and Safety. It addresses the use of foot and knee protection. ELTEN provides orthopaedic dressings and orthopaedic inserts for various models which have already been tested.

Chalking
Safety shoes with RUBBER outsoles can leave streaks on ground and floor surfaces. “Leaving streaks” is called chalking.

Climate regulating textile lining
Fabric lining breathes and is especially comfortable on the skin. The ability to absorb and release perspiration provides a good climate regulation in the shoe.

Cold insulated CI
Cold insulation

Collar padding
Provides excellent wearing comfort as well as good stability and firm support in the shoe because of the ankle-wrapping upper edging

Combination quick-release
The combination quick-release allows the boots to be put on and taken off quickly. The boots can however still be laced individually.

Composite toe cap
Protects toes against impacts of at least 200 joules and pressure loading of at least 15 kN. It also weighs less than the conventional steel cap.

Cordura
Cordura® is a polyamide fabric. Cordura® fabrics are made with polyamide fibres which are spun again and then woven. This makes the fabric especially tear resistant. Cordura® is also lightweight and very breathable.

Cowhide
Cowhide is the generic term for all leathers derived from cattle.

Cut protection
Cut protection protects shoe uppers against being cut through by chainsaws. The protection is provided by processed Kevlar. Protection classes are distinguished in accordance with EN ISO 17249.

Cut resistance
The cut resistance defines the outsole’s resistance to sharp objects and particles (e.g. shavings and glass). TPU outsoles, nitrile rubber outsoles as well as vulcanised nitrile soles provide a high degree of cut resistance. They are suitable therefore for use in areas with shavings and in the glass industry.

Cutting die
The cutting dies are made precisely to the shape of the individual pieces of the upper. This makes it possible to simply punch out the pieces.

D - F

Deep-treaded MONO-PU with 9 mm profile
The deep-treaded MONO-PU sole with a 9 mm profile is a mono-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance, even when moving sideways. This sole profile is particularly suitable for the outdoors, such as in forests and woodlands and on rough terrain. The outsole is heat resistant to approx. 180°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C as well as oil and fuel resistant.

Deep-treaded PU/PU SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole
The deep-treaded PU/PU SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole is a double-density sole with a 6 mm profile. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made of PU and is particularly abrasion-resistant, heat-resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C as well as oil and fuel resistant. The sole is based on the SAFETY-GRIP sole concept.

Deep-treaded RUBBER SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole
The deep-treaded RUBBER SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole is a mono-density sole made from rubber with a 6 mm profile. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The outsole is abrasion resistant, nick-resistant, heat-resistant to approx. 200°C, short-term even to approx ca. 300°C, and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C. The outsole is also oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals.

Deep-treaded RUBBER sole
The deep-treaded RUBBER sole is a mono-density sole with a 6 mm profile. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The outsole is abrasion resistant, nick-resistant, heat-resistant to approx. 200°C, short-term even to approx ca. 300°C, and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C. The sole is also oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals.

Deep-treaded RUBBER/PU SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole
The deep-treaded RUBBER/PU SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole is a double-density sole with a 6 mm profile. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made from rubber and is particularly abrasion-resistant, nick-resistant, heat-resistant to approx. 200°C, short-term even to approx ca. 300°C, and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C. The outsole is also oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals (acids and lyes). The sole is based on the SAFETY-GRIP sole concept.

Die cutting
The individual pieces of the upper, from the various materials, are cut out/punched out using cutting dies.

Difference ESD suitable and antistatic soft-fleece insole
The difference between the two insoles is the contact resistance. An ESD shoe has a specified contact resistance of 105–107 ohm.

Differences in the inlay soles
The inlay soles are distinguished by comfort and function. b-dynamic or ERGO-ACTIVE inlay soles support the foot and provide the foot with more safety in the shoe.

Differences in the method of production for the soles
Distinctions are made between 4 different methods of production. Soles can be cemented, the so-called AGO method of production. In this method, the upper and insole are cemented together, the outsole is then cemented to the upper.
Another method of production is the injection moulding/vulcanisation of the soles to the upper. In this method, the insole is cemented to the upper or joined (i.e. fastening the upper with a zigzag seam). The upper is then placed in a mould in which the sole is directly injected. By this method, the heated sole material (e.g. rubber or polyurethane) is fed into the mould where it then has to cool off. The upper edge and the sole bond during cooling. The profile of the sole is determined by the mould.
Soles can however also be sewn. A distinction is made between the “stitched method” and the “welt sewn method” with sewn soles. In the stitched method, the outsole is sewn on through the insole and through the upper edge after the last has been removed, while in the welt sewn method an edge is cemented under the insole and in a subsequent step sewn to the upper by means of a leather strip. The outsole is then sewn to this edge. The last method of production for wood-nailed shoes is rarely used today. In this method, the outsole is fastened to the insole using wooden pins.

Disadvantages of leather
Leather is not a uniform product. Even with similar leathers, there are differences in appearance, quality and in the leather’s characteristics. This is due of course to the fact that leather is a natural product.

Double-density profile sole
Double-density profile soles comprise a midsole and an outsole. In this case, the midsole is usually somewhat softer and responsible for cushioning, while the outsole comes into direct contact with the ground/floor and is responsible for slip resistance as well as for heat, oil or chemical resistance.

E
The symbol E indicates that the heel fulfils the additional “energy absorption capacity” requirement.

EDL
EDL (ELTEN DISTANCE LINING) is a distance yarn made from microfibres. The capillary action provides a better moisture transport. EDL is certified in accordance with the Öko-Tex (Oeko-Tex) Standard 100

ELTEN air system heel cushion
Protects the foot on different kinds of grounds and stabilises the step.

ELTEN Basic full-length inlay sole
The ELTEN Basic inlay sole is made from fleece which provides a good moisture absorption and release. The material is particularly sturdy. The inlay sole is also replaceable and antistatic.

ELTEN natural form
Asymmetric steel toe cap for optimal toe-room and an extra wide fit to accommodate the larger foot.

ELTEN POWER-FLEX-SYSTEM
Especially high degree of flexibility and wearing comfort.

EN ISO 17249
European and international standard that specifies the requirements to be fulfilled by safety shoes intended to protect against chainsaw cuts (forest)

EN ISO 20345
European and international standard that specifies requirements to be fulfilled by safety shoes, so that the wearer is protected against injuries that can be caused by accidents. Shoes that are tested according to this norm are equipped with toe caps designed to protect against impacts with a tested force of at least 200 J. Furthermore, they have to withstand pressure loading of at least 15 kN.

English shoe sizes
As opposed to the French stitch, English sizes are measured in inches. A size here corresponds to 1/3 of an inch.

EPA
Electrostatic protected area

ERGO-ACTIVE
Elten Ergo-Active sets new standards for wearing comfort. An innovative fitting system has been developed together with the Eberhard-Karls University in Tübingen (Tuebingen) that makes it possible to provide the right shoe for every type of foot. The foot is measured exactly with highly sensitive cameras. An exact data image of the human foot with a personally precise shape is available in seconds. This means a twofold advantage for the wearer: Objective assistance in the selection of the right shoe and significant time savings. Time-wasting fitting is no longer necessary. Wearing comfort and enjoyment are improved. Both make a real contribution to foot health. The ERGO-ACTIVE foot type system provides 3 fit options, the right shoe for everyone.

Foot type 1: for large feet, short toes, wide ball and heel widths, steep ball angle
Foot type 2: for feet of average width, long toes, average ball and heel widths, flat ball angle
Foot type 3: for narrow feet, with average toe lengths, narrow ball and heel widths, ball angle between steep and flat

ERGO-ACTIVE ESD full-length inlay sole
The ERGO-ACTIVE ESD inlay sole is part of the ERGO-ACTIVE system. It is available for every foot type and in the weight-optimised comfort classes soft, medium and strong. The ergonomic chassis also provides improved stability of the heel.

ESD (ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE)
ESD shoes should be used whenever there is a necessity to conduct electrostatic charges away in a controlled manner through the shoes. ESD approved safety shoes and occupational shoes thus protect not only personnel, but also provide protection for components and assemblies at risk from electrostatic energy.

THE RELEVANT STANDARDS FOR ESD FOOTWEAR ARE:

DIN EN 61340-5-1:2017 “Protection of electronic components from electrostatic phenomena”. Here the person/footwear system is tested whereby a Maximum Limit value of 100 MΩ (108 Ω) must be complied with.

DIN EN 61340-4-3 “Standard test procedure for special applications: footwear”. The testing of the footwear can be carried out in 3 different climate classes. The lower the relative humidity, the more problematic the effects on the capability to carry the static charge away. All ELTEN ESD shoes are approved per climate class 1 – preconditioning the shoe at max. 15 % relative humidity. Of the 3 climate classes, this test represents the highest requirements on the capability of the shoe to carry the static charge away. This ensures that the ELTEN ESD shoes meet the highest expectations of our customers in practical situations, even under difficult climatic conditions (such as in winter times).

ESD Design
The equipment of ESD shoes (ESD = electrostatic discharge) makes it possible to divert electrostatic charges in a controlled manner. Such shoes, primarily, do not protect the person, but rather protect the devices sensitive to electrostatic charges in sensitive working areas.

ESD full-length inlay sole
ESD-DESIGN: The ELTEN ESD inlay sole is conductive and fulfils the DIN EN ISO 20345 and DIN EN 61340-4-3 standards for electrostatic discharge areas: protection against electrostatic discharge (electrostatic discharge = ESD, contact resistance 105–107Ω (Ohm).
OPTIMAL FOOT CLIMATE: High moisture absorption and release because of the PU foam’s open cell structure. This keeps the foot comfortably dry.
SHOCK-ABSORBING AND COMFORTABLE: The extreme softness of the PU foam absorbs shocks on impact and increases walking comfort.
ODOUR-NEUTRALISING: Activated coal reduces the formation of unpleasant odours in the shoe.
ANTIBACTERIAL: Activated coal prevents the development and spreading of fungi and other bacteria.
BREATHABLE: The PU foam’s open cell structure improves the shoe’s climate.

ESD Shoe
ESD shoes (ESD = electrostatic discharge) do not primarily protect the person, but rather protect the devices sensitive to electrostatic discharge in sensitive working areas. With a contact resistance of 105–108Ω (Ohm), they prevent uncontrolled unloading after electrostatic charging by diverting the electrostatic charge in a controlled manner.

ESDS
Electrostatic discharge sensitive device

ESD suitable soft-fleece insole
An insole provides the connection between the upper and the sole. The ESD compatible soft-fleece insole protects against electrostatic discharge (electrostatic discharge = ESD), even when 100% dry, even without the use of additional aids. The insole’s good moisture absorption provides a comfortable foot climate and high degree of wearing comfort. These insoles are approx. 50% lighter than comparable soles made from natural materials and more flexible and more resistant to impact. They breathe well and provide excellent abrasion resistance.

EVA
Ethylene vinyl acetate, EVA is an insulating foam that does not absorb water. EVA is elastic and tear and slip-resistant. When used to make shoes, EVA is used as cushioning in the midsole

Fashmo
FashmoTM fabric is a water-repellent polyamide microfibre. Fashmo is easy to take care of, breathable and extremely tear-resistant. The fibre is extremely fast drying.

FG = Fits the foot
The FG (German: Fuß-Gerecht, “fits the foot”) footbed with a permanently formed ankle support and a rounded heel provide the foot with support and control.

Firefighting standard, DIN EN 15090:2006 Footwear for firefighters
This standard defines minimum requirements and methods of testing for the use of three types of shoes for firefighters: shoes for general use when on firefighting duty, shoes worn when fighting fires and shoes worn when working with hazardous materials.

Fit
Fit describes the width, height and length of the inside of the shoe. The ball angle, toe length and ball and heel widths are also decisive.

Fleece full-length inlay sole
The inlay sole is made from fleece which provides good moisture absorption and release. The material is particularly sturdy. The inlay sole is also replaceable.

Fleece warm lining
Fleece warm lining breathes well and is particularly comfortable on the skin. It can also absorb a large amount of perspiration.

Fleece warm lining full-length inlay sole
The inlay sole is replaceable, antistatic and sturdy.

Flexrange
The flexrange is found on the heel side of the boot. It is this feature that provides the wearer with the greatest possible flexibility and freedom of movement when kneeling or climbing. It protects the Achilles tendon.

Foot type
In the course of developing the ERGO-ACTIVE system, ELTEN also developed three fit options, in turn subdivided into three foot types.

Foot type 1: for large feet, short toes, wide ball and heel widths, steep ball angle
Foot type 2: for feet of average width, long toes, average ball and heel widths, flat ball angle
Foot type 3: for narrow feet, with average toe lengths, narrow ball and heel widths, ball angle between steep and flat.

Forest standard
EN ISO 17249 is the European and international standard that specifies the requirements to be fulfilled by safety shoes intended to protect against chainsaw cuts (forest).

Form A
In accordance with EN ISO 20345, a low shoe because the vertical distance between the insole’s lowest point and the upper’s highest point is less than 113 mm for shoe sizes 41 and 42.

Form B
In accordance with EN ISO 20345, a laced boot because the vertical distance between the insole’s lowest point and the upper’s highest point is at least 113 mm for shoe sizes 41 and 42.

Form C
In accordance with EN ISO 20345, a high boot because the vertical distance between the insole’s lowest point and the upper’s highest point is at least 178 mm for shoe sizes 41 and 42.

Form D
In accordance with EN ISO 20345, an extremely high boot because the vertical distance between the insole’s lowest point and the upper’s highest point is at least 280 mm for shoe sizes 41 and 42.

French point
The French point (also know as the Paris point) is 2/3 cm long, i.e. every increase in shoe size corresponds with an increase of 2/3 cm. French shoe sizes begin at 10.

Front support
The front support is intended as an aid to be used on ladders or when climbing ladders to prevent slipping from the ladder’s rungs.

Full bellows tongue
A full bellows tongue prevents dirt from getting into the shoe

Full-grain cowhide
Full-grain cowhide is prepared from the skin layer facing the hair side of the leather. When processed or split, the flesh side is worked and the grain side stays on the outside.

Full-grain cowhide, calcium chloride resistant
This special full-grain leather is calcium chloride resistant. This leather upper is particularly suited for safety shoes used in mining.

Full-grain leather
Leather that still has the complete grain layer after processing, i.e. the grain layer is not corrected.

Full-length inlay sole
Inlay soles support the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot. They are often replaceable and as a rule provide good cushioning and optimal shock absorption. At the same time, they may not change the contact resistance (see ESD). Every shoe is tested with an inlay sole when the type examination is done.

G - I

Genuine lambskin lining
Lambskin lining is a natural material with outstanding thermal characteristics. It breathes well and is comfortable on the skin, which provides great wearing comfort.

GORE-TEX
The GORE-TEX® laminate prevents water from getting into the shoe, but still allows the feet to “breathe”. This technology provides ideal climate-comfort for all outdoor activities, even in the harshest weather conditions. All components (leather, textile) including the entire shoe construction are precisely attuned to one another and are subject to constant quality controls.

Grain leather
Grain leather identifies all leathers for which the grain side of the leather has not yet been completely removed. This includes all smooth leathers and nubuck leather for which the grain side was not completely sanded.

Grain leather
The grain leather is that part of the leather with the grain layer.

Grain split
When split, leather is split over its thickness. That layer of the leather with the grain is called the grain split.

Half-sock
The half-sock surfacing provides good moisture absorption and release as well as a comfortable heel support bed. The inlay sole is also antistatic.

Hazardous materials test
ELTEN not only tests its products against ISO standards, but also has them tested by the independent PFI testing institute. The SG symbol (SG stands for “tested for hazardous materials”) displayed on the shoe indicates that tanning agents etc. are only present to a very small degree in the materials used to make the shoe, which is too little to trigger allergies, or that the chemicals used are not carcinogenic.

Heat insulated HI
Thermal insulation

Heat resistant outsole HRO
High performance against contact heat

Heat resistant seams
It is often important that work that must be done at high temperatures can be carried out safely. For example when welding or working at a blast furnace. Here Kevlar® threading can show how extremely heat resistant they are when put to the hardest tests. Ideal for use at high temperatures, high melting points, heat-resistant when used under heat, ideal for protective clothing

Heel loop
A heel loop makes it easy to put the shoe on quickly.

Heel pocket lining
The heel pocket lining identifies the heel reinforcement that provides comfortable shoe support and makes it easy to put the shoe on and to take the shoe off.

High boots
High boots are shoes with an especially high upper (>20cm).

How are shoes produced
To begin with, the shoe’s design is established. A drawing is prepared for this purpose. Templates are then prepared for the upper’s pieces on the basis of the drawing. Using the templates, the pieces can then be punched out from leather or from another material. The pieces are then sewn together. Step by step, this is how the upper is produced. The actual shoe assembly can begin once the upper and lining materials have been sewn or cemented together. The upper is pulled over the last which provides the shoe’s shape. The insole is then fastened from below. This is either cemented or sewn to the upper. Then comes the outsole under the upper, which can be accomplished using different methods. The outsole can be injection moulded, cemented, sewn or nailed.

How is cut protection provided?
Cut protection is provided by working several layers of Kevlar between the lining and the upper.

Hydroguard membrane
The breathable HydroguardTM membrane is wind and water-repellent and at the same time extremely comfortable to wear. It keeps the feet dry and warm.

Impregnating
Impregnating identifies the process of protecting a material against moisture penetration or in other words making the material water-repellent.

Improved heel stability
Improved heel stability provides for better support in the shoe and for more wearing comfort. This result is achieved with improved inlay soles or with heel reinforcements.

Infinergy®
As elastic as rubber, but lighter. The world’s first expanded thermoplastic polyurethane (E-TPU). Combines the properties of TPU with the advantages of foams.
Key features of Infinergy®:
– Low density
– High elasticity
– Outstanding resilience
– High abrasion resistance
– Good long-term durability in a wide temperature range (–20° to over +40° C)

Injection moulded sole
Injection moulded soles are fastened directly to the upper by machine. In this case, the outsole and the midsole are produced together with the shoe.

Inlay sole
Inlay soles support the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot. They are often replaceable and as a rule provide good cushioning and optimal shock absorption. At the same time, they may not change the contact resistance (see ESD). Every shoe is tested with an inlay sole when the type examination is done.

Insole
The insole is part of the interior bottom of the shoe. As specified in EN 344, the insole must be constructed so that it cannot be removed without destroying the shoe. The insole connects the upper with the bottom of the shoe. The shoe upper and insole are sewn together or AGO fastened, far below the insole – depending on the method used to make the shoe. The midsole and outsole are injection moulded or cemented to the underside of the insole. Depending on the type of shoe, a steel midsole and/or an ankle with a cushioning element can also be built inbetween the insole and the outsole. Because foot perspiration exerts a significant strain on the shoe, and because the insole must hold up for the entire life of the safety shoe, the insole plays a significant role in the quality of the shoe. To be able to do justice to these requirements and to provide those who wear the shoes with the greatest possible wearing comfort, leather insoles or insoles made from antistatic materials are used. As specified by EN regulations, the insole must have a minimum thickness of 2 mm. Leather insoles may not have a pH value of less than 3.5. The regulations governing abrasion resistance, water absorption and the ability to dissipate water also apply. The designation used in German, Brandsohle, which translates literally as “burning sole”, derives etymologically from the burning experienced in connection with heavy perspiration (can be prevented with the use of shoe inserts).

ISO
International Standards Organisation

J - L

Joining
Joining identifies the process of sewing the insole to the upper.

Kevlar threading
Kevlar threading provides optimal flame resistance, heat protection and chemical resistance. Cleaning does not affect the fire resistance.

Ladies’ ESD full-length inlay sole
The Ladies’ ESD inlay sole is antistatic and fulfils the EN ISO 20345 standard for electrostatic discharge areas. It protects against electrostatic discharge (contact resistance: 105-107 ohm). The fleece provides good moisture absorption and release. The material is particularly sturdy, and the inlay sole is replaceable.

Laminated leather
This is understood to mean leather for which a laminate/membrane layer with a thickness of at least 0.15 mm is applied. The material may no longer be designated as leather if the laminated layer makes up more than one third of the overall thickness of the material.

Last
A last is a model of the human foot. It establishes the shoe’s inner and outer measurements and so defines the shoe’s fit.

Leather
Even today, most safety shoes are made from leather. This is due to the fact that many positive properties of leather make it well suited as a material from which to make shoes. Leather is a processed and refined natural product. In this case, it is tanned animal skins. It is often chosen because of its durability, its elasticity and its ability to keep its shape. Leather also holds heat, resists moisture and can be formed easily.

Leather heel slip strap
A leather heel slip strap makes it easy to get into the boot quickly.

Leather lining
Leather lining is used to line the inside of the shoe.

Leather lining
Leather linings breathe and are extremely tear-resistant.

Loops
Loops make it easy to put the shoe on

Low weight
Low weight thanks to: composite toe cap, lightweight uppers, lightweight outsole design with EVA midsole; provides wearing comfort and reduced foot fatigue.

LOWA full-length inlay sole
The inlay sole is replaceable, antistatic and sturdy.

M - O

Metal- and leather-free
Especially high demands are placed on work clothing where the use of metal can be problematic. Safety shoes made completely without metal are an absolute prerequisite when, for example, working in secured areas or near induction loops as used in airports and industry. The usual metal equipment is replaced with textile D54 lacing elements or plastic eyelets, as well as with plastic toe caps. Safety shoes without leather also protect people allergic to tanning agents.

Metal-free
Especially high demands are placed on work clothing where the use of metal can be problematic. Safety shoes made completely without metal are an absolute prerequisite when, for example, working in secured areas or near induction loops as used in airports and industry. The commonly used metal equipment is replaced by textile lacing elements or plastic eyelets, as well as by composite toe caps.

Metal-free penetration protection
Penetration protection provided by textiles provides great flexibility and freedom of movement, especially when working in a kneeling position. Non-metal penetration protection also weighs less than steel and eliminates the need for an insole, for which the textile sole provides the function.

Microfibre
Microfibre is a term that describes all very fine fibres. Microfibres usually measure between 0.5-0.7 dtex (1 dtex, decitex = 1 gram per 10,000 metres threading, i.e. the threading with which the material is made weighs 1 gram for every 10,000 metres). Microfibres are very soft and keep their shape.

Midsole
The midsole usually provides cushioning and shock absorption.

Mondopoint
The Mondopoint system is an internationally comparable metric system of measurement. The system measures both the length and the width of the foot in millimetres.

MONO sole
As opposed to a double-density sole, a MONO sole does not have a midsole.

MONO-PU NATURE sole
The MONO-PU NATURE sole is a mono-density profile sole made of PU. It is antistatic and provides excellent slip resistance. The outsole is abrasion resistant, heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C, as well as oil and fuel resistant.

MONO-PU NOVA-F sole
The MONO-PU NOVA-F sole is a mono-density profile sole made of PU. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The outsole is abrasion resistant, heat-resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C, as well as oil and fuel resistant.

NOMEX
NOMEX® from DuPont™ is a high performance fibre made from a patented combination of 95% NOMEX® and 5% KEVLAR®, a highly rigid and durable arimid. NOMEX® provides an optimum of flame resistance, heat protection and chemical resistance. It is self-extinguishing, does not melt and does not drip. Cleaning does not affect the fire resistance.

Normal width
Normal wide fit for a narrow to normally wide foot.

NOVA-FEMININ
The right fit is often decisive for the acceptance of foot protection. Shoes that fit poorly are not worn. Men’s and ladies’ feet differ in the width and height of the foot, even for the same shoe size. Ladies’ feet are slimmer and flater. The Nova-Feminin series offers a last that was developed especially for ladies and tailored especially to their needs.

Nubuck leather
Nubuck leather is an particularly fine leather that has been lightly sanded on the grain side and therefore been given a satiny character. Fine calfskins and cowhides are used for nubuck leather. Because it remains water-resistant for a long time after waxing, it is used for upholstered furniture, clothing, shoes, gloves.

Outsole
The outsole provides optimal support and traction on the surface. It also provides protection against cuts and abrasion resistance.

P - R

P
The symbol P indicates that the additional requirement for penetration protection has been fulfilled. Example S1P

Padded tongue
A padded tongue provides excellent wearing comfort and prevents painful pressure points on the foot

Padded upper edge
Protects the Achilles tendon and provides good wearing comfort

Penetration protection
Penetration protection means that objects cannot penetrate the shoe by penetrating the sole. This protection is either provided by a steel or by a non-metallic midsole. The outsole and midsole are however also important for the penetration protection.

Penetration safety
ELTEN integrates both a non-metallic penetration protection and a penetration-resistant steel midsole in class 3 safety shoes. Both designs fulfil the additional requirements for penetration protection specified by EN ISO 20344 / 20345. For higher penetration safety requirements, we recommend the use of S3 safety shoes with steel midsoles, for example in the construction industry.

Perforated upper
The perforations provide an outstanding air circulation in the shoe, which makes the shoe comfortable to wear.

Polyester
Polyester is made from oil and its byproducts (e.g. coal, natural gas). Polyester has the following properties: it is elastic, highly tear and abrasion resistant, absorbs very little moisture, is easy to care for and is resistant to light.

PPE
Personal protective equipment

Protection class 1
Protection class in accordance with EN ISO 17249 regarding the cut resistance of shoes designed to resist cutting. The shoe can resist a chainsaw operating at a speed of 20m/s.

Protection class 2
Protection class in accordance with EN ISO 17249 regarding the cut resistance of shoes designed to resist cutting. The shoe can resist a chainsaw operating at a speed of 24m/s.

Protection class 3
Protection class in accordance with EN ISO 17249 regarding the cut resistance of shoes designed to resist cutting. The shoe can resist a chainsaw operating at a speed of 28m/s.

Protection class 4
Protection class in accordance with EN ISO 17249 regarding the cut resistance of shoes designed to resist cutting. The shoe can resist a chainsaw operating at a speed of 32m/s.

Protective cuff (spark protection/heat protection)
To prevent burning caused by heat transmission, sparks, splashing, slag and hot metal, it is particularly critical when welding and cutting to provide protection. Welders often complain about burns to the heels, to the ankles or even to the instep caused by so-called welding beads getting between trousers and the shoes. Safety shoes equipped with a spark protection cuff provide protection to the feet against this problem. The buckle also makes it possible to adjust the fit individually.

PU
PU is the abbreviation for polyurethane. PU is a plastic used when injection moulding / foaming midsoles or outsoles to the upper. PU is available in various degrees of hardness. It is possible therefore to make a soft midsole and a firmer outsole of PU.

PU toe protection
The polyurethane toe protection is injection moulded directly to the shoe and is therefore solidly integrated with the shoe. This provides the shoe’s outer material at the front of the shoe with durable protection against abrasion and increases the lifetime of the safety shoe.

PU/PU BUSINESS sole
The PU/PU BUSINESS sole is a double-density profile sole made of PU. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is abrasion-resistant as well as oil and fuel resistant. It is also heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C.

PU/PU NOVA-F sole
The PU/PU NOVA-F sole is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is abrasion-resistant as well as oil and fuel resistant. It is also heat-resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C.

PU/PU sole
The PU/PU sole is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is particularly abrasion-resistant, oil and fuel resistant as well as heat-resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C .

PU/PU TOP WORKER sole
The PU/PU TOP WORKER sole is a double-density profile sole made of PU. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made of PU and is abrasion-resistant, heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C, as well as oil and fuel resistant.

Quarter
The back part of the upper is called the quarter.

Quarter lining
The lining at the back part of the upper is called the quarter lining

Quick release fastener
The quick release fastener makes it possible to get out of the shoe quickly in an emergency. The ability to get out of the shoe quickly reduces the risk of burning.

Rawhide
Rawhide identifies animal skins before tanning.

Reflective material
People wearing dark clothing are first noticed at a distance of approx. 30 metres when it is raining, in shadow, at sunrise and at sunset and when dark. Equipment with reflecting materials provides additional protection by providing good visibility even in bad weather and poor lighting/visibility.

Roughening
When roughened, the upper is abraded lightly to improve bonding with other materials, e.g. when roughening the upper’s welt so that the sole bonds better.

RUBBER
The material generally identified as rubber is actually vulcanised caoutchouc. Caoutchouc is produced from the latex sap collected from caoutchouc trees. Because unvulcanised caoutchouc breaks when cold and stinks when warm, it is vulcanised which also makes it into a durable raw material.

RUBBER/EVA sole VIBRAM®
The RUBBER/EVA VIBRAM® sole is a finished sole manufactured and supplied by VIBRAM®. Finished soles are cemented. It is antistatic and provides excellent slip resistance. The midsole is made from EVA (ethylene-vinyl-acetate) and provides outstanding cushioning. The low material density makes the midsole particularly lightweight. The outsole is made from rubber and is particularly abrasion-resistant, nick-resistant, heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to -20°C. The outsole is also oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals (acids and lyes).

RUBBER/PU SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole
The RUBBER/PU SAFETY-GRIP 2 sole is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made from rubber and is particularly abrasion resistant, nick-resistant, heat resistant to approx. 200°C, short-term even to approx. 300°C, and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C. The outsole is also oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals (acids and lyes). The sole is based on the SAFETY-GRIP sole concept.

RUBBER/PU VIBRAM® sole
The RUBBER/PU OUTDOOR sole is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The colour contrasts give the sole a dynamic look. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made from rubber and is heat-resistant to approx. 200°C, short-term even to approx. 300°C, and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -20°C. It is also particularly abrasion-resistant, nick-resistant, oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals (acids and lyes).

RUBBER/PU VIBRAM® sole
The RUBBER/PU VIBRAM sole is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made from rubber and is heat resistant to approx. 200°C, short-term even to approx. 300°C, flexible at cold temperatures to -20°C, as well as particularly abrasion-resistant, nick-resistant, oil and fuel resistant and resistant to many chemicals (acids and lyes).

S - U

S1
An S1 shoe fulfils the same requirements as specified for SB shoes. In addition to this, it has a closed heel, an energy absorption capacity at the heel and fulfils antistatic requirements.

S2
An S2 shoe fulfils the requirements specified for S1 shoes. In addition to this, it also fulfils additional water penetration and water permeability requirements. The water penetration (expressed as mass increase of the thin textile plate within 60 minutes) may not exceed the limit of 0.2 grams. The water absorption may not be higher than 30%.

S3
An S3 shoe fulfils the requirements specified for S2 shoes. In addition to this, it also fulfils additional requirements governing penetration protection and profiled soles.

S4
An S4 shoe is a boot and fulfils the requirements specified for S1 shoes. In addition to this, it must hold water outside for at least 15 minutes and has to have a profiled outsole.

S5
Like an S4 shoe, an S5 shoe is a boot and fulfils the same specifications. It also fulfils the additional requirements for penetration protection.

Safety boot
See style B or C

Safety low shoe
See style A

Safety sandal
A safety shoe designed as a sandal. It fulfils S1 specifications and more.

SAFETY-GRIP
Improved slip and tread resistance, optimised foot rolling characteristics and walking without fatigue facilitated by an S-line profile arrangement modelled on the foot, as well as outstanding cushioning of the heel and ball, belong to the most outstanding
features of the ELTEN SAFETY GRIP sole concept, developed together with Eberhard-Karls University in Tübingen (Tuebingen). Additional edges and bevelling of the 6 mm profiles provide for excellent grip and stability, even on particularly difficult terrain outdoors.

SB
In accordance with EN ISO 20345, SB identifies a basic shoe. This is a shoe that fulfils minimum requirements such as tear resistance, durability or water vapour permeability for uppers, for linings or for the assembled shoe.

Seamed dust tongue
The seamed dust tongue is attached to the upper on either side of the tongue so that it is completely closed. It prevents dust and foreign matters from getting into the shoe.

Slip resistance
Safety shoes are subjected to a slip resistance test in accordance with DIN EN 13287. At a given pressure, the shoe is pulled across two different surfaces, each of which is covered with a different lubricant. The resulting friction is measured.

Smooth leather
Smooth leather identifies all types of leather for which the grain side is worked on the outside, regardless of the animal’s natural degree of graining. The top side is however always a “smooth leather”.

Split leather
Splitting describes the process of bringing the skin to a uniform thickness. For instance, cowhides have a thickness of 5 to 10 millimetres, which makes it possible to split the leather more than once. The bottom layer is less expensive but has the least internal cohesion. This is because the density and mingling of the protein fibres, from which the leather is formed, decreases the lower it is (to the flesh side). The so-called full-grain is most durable – the upper layer with the smooth leather surface – where the grain is found. The bottom split leather (flesh split) is often incorrectly identified as suede because it has a rough surface and looks like chamois leather (fish oil tanning, i.e. buckskin). Correctly, suede only identifies leather from wild animals, which after tanning does not necessarily have a rough surface.

Splitting
Animal skins are split along their thickness to smooth away unevenness. Thicker skins can be split more than once.

SRA
Slip resistance on ceramic tiles with cleaning agents

SRB
Slip resistance on steel floors with glycerin

SRC
Slip resistance on ceramic tiles with cleaning agents and steel floors with glycerin.

Steel toe cap
Protects toes against impacts of at least 200 joules and pressure loading of at least 15 kN.

Steel midsole
A steel midsole made from corrosion-resistant stainless steel provides penetration protection. It is installed between the insole and the outsole or midsole.

Sturdy lacing
Sturdy lacing improves a safety shoe’s support.

Suede
Suede is a generic term for a type of leather with a roughened surface that is sanded onto the flesh or grain side of the leather. Suede is made from grainy hide or from flesh splits; the flesh side is sanded and lies on the outside. Suede flesh split hides are usually understood to mean that the side facing the grain side is worked (scraped, sanded). Full-grain leather, which is worked on the flesh side, is known as chamois leather.

Super lightweight
Especially light weight due to lightweight uppers and soles.

Sympatex
The Sympatex® membrane is: wind and water repellent, prevents water from getting into the shoe but lets the foot “breathe”, ideal climate comfort, highest wearing comfort, keeps feet dry and warm, Sympatex® high2Out climate membrane

Tanning
Tanning is the most important step in the preparation of leather and serves to preserve the animal skins (the so-called hides) to prevent them from decomposing and to stabilise them for later use. The oldest tanning method is fish oil tanning, for which there is documentation going back to 6000 BCE, while vegetable tanning has been used since the Bronze Age going back about 4000 years. Chrome tanning has been the most widespread tanning method since 1900, a preferred method because it is quick and effective.

Textile lining
Fabric lining breathes and is particularly pleasant to the skin. The ability to absorb and release perspiration provides good climate regulation in the shoe.

Textile net inserts
Textile net inserts are textiles with fine holes and are therefore breatheable and air permeable.

Thinsulate insulation
The unique ThinsulateTM Insulation microfibre is thin, warming and lightweight. The fibre is approx. 10 times smaller than other, comparable fibres, which means that it does a better job of locking in air. The more air that is held in, the more efficient the insulation becomes through the reflection of body heat.

TOP GRIP
Extra slip resistant profile sole.

Top-grain leather
Top-grain leather’s surface has been completely sanded.

TPU
TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) is a special type of polyurethane (PUR/PU). It is particularly sturdy, abrasion-resistant and flexible and unlike conventional polyurethane, which is made from two components that react together to form a foam, it is made from a granulate that is formed thermally. TPU therefore provides higher performance. The material is, in all of the properties that distinguish a safety shoe – abrasion, slip resistance, bending – decisively better than conventional polyurethane.

TPU overcap
The TPU toe protection is directly injected to the shoe and thus solidly integrated with the shoe. This provides the shoe’s outer material at the front of the shoe with durable protection against abrasion and increases the lifetime of the safety shoe.

TPU/PU ERGO-ACTIVE sole with TPU pivot points
The TPU/PU ERGO-ACTIVE sole with TPU pivot points is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made from TPU and is particularly abrasion-resistant, oil and fuel resistant, heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -30°C. The ergonomic outsole is based on the SAFETY-GRIP sole concept and is adapted to the natural movement of the foot. The integrated pivot points reduce the frictional resistance during rotation to a minimum.

TPU/PU SPORTICS sole
The TPU/PU SPORTICS sole is a double-density profile sole. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is made from TPU and is particularly abrasion-resistant, oil and fuel resistant as well as heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to approx. -30°C .

TPU/PU TRAINERS sole
The TPU/PU TRAINERS sole is a double-density profile sole. The colour of the sole is adapted to the colour of the upper. It is antistatic and provides good slip resistance. The soft PU core in the midsole provides good impact absorption and high wearing comfort. The outsole is particularly abrasion-resistant, oil and fuel resistant as well as heat resistant to approx. 130°C and flexible at cold temperatures to -30°C .

Types of leather
Today, leather is subdivided into more than 200 types. Leather types can be subdivided using various criteria: by origin (by animal species) cattle, pig, etc., by the degree to which it has been split: split leather/full-grain leather, by the tanning method, by the colouring, by the method of preparation and by the use.

Upper
Upper is the term used to identify the upper part of the shoe. Thus the shoe without the soles.

V - X

Vamp
The front part of the upper is identified as the vamp.

Vamp lining
The lining at the front part of the upper is identified as the vamp lining.

Velcro fastener
Velcro fasteners make it possible to open shoes easily and quickly. It can also be adjusted individually, which improves the fit and wearing comfort.

VIBRAM
Vibram is a producer of soles

VIBRAM Monowrap
In the Vibram Monowrap technology, a stabiliser is integrated in the sole. This stabilises the ankle.

Vulcanisation
Vulkanisation is understood the process by which natural caoutchouc is converted into rubber with the addition of sulphur and the application of heat and pressure. Vulkanisation was discovered by Charles Goodyear.

Waterproof genuine leather
Waterproof leather is leather that has been greased or treated with hydrophobicity to make it almost waterproof.

Waterproofing
Waterproofing means that leather has been impregnated.

Water-repellent nubuck leather
Water-repellent nubuck leather is impregnated to make it water-repellent. The impregnation is quickly absorbed by the leather which provides it with protection against liquids.

WELLMAXX
Thanks to the revolutionary sole core mode of the innovative expanded thermoplastic poyurethane Infinergy® you will experience a completely new feeling of walking.

Welt
Welt is understood to mean the addition to the upper at the upper’s bottom edge. Depending on the method used to make the shoe, the welt wraps the shoe or is found at the vamp under the toe protection cap

Wide
Wide fit for a normal to large foot.

Woven lambskin winter lining
Woven lambskin winter lining makes the shoe comfortable to wear. It can also absorb a large amount of perspiration, is comfortable on the skin and breathes well.

Wrapping
Wrapping identifies the process of wrapping the upper leather around the steel cap.

WRU
The symbol WRU (=water resistant upper) indicates that the additional requirement for resistance of the upper against water penetration and absorption has been fulfilled.

Y - Z

Zipper
We use zippers for our firefighter boots. They allow the boots to be put on and taken off quickly.